The Munich Talmud: Jesus' Charge Sheet Discovered?

  Historians and archaeologists continue to uncover evidence that confirms the veracity of the Bible today, 2,000 years later. One of the latest findings has come through the acquisition by Tyndale House of a copy of the Munich Talmud.

  The Jewish Talmud, also known as the Shas, is composed of rabbinic writings which were compiled and collected between 200-500AD. Written in Hebrew and Aramaic, the Talmud covers a broad range of topics, including Jewish history and commentaries and opinions on the Law.


  This recent discovery provides further historical proof of the crucifixion of The Christ. The portion below contains what scholars believe to be another record of the Sanhedrin's indictment of Jesus Christ, disparagingly called Yeshu here rather than by His true name, Yeshua:  



Jesus' Charge Sheet from the Munich Talmud 

  It says:

  On the Eve of Passover they hung Jeshu the Nazarine. And the herald went out before him for 40 days [saying]: “Jeshu the Nazarine will go out to be stoned for sorcery and misleading and enticing Israel. Any who knows [anything] in his defence must come and declare concerning him.” But no-one came to his defence so they hung him on the Eve of Passover. 

  Scholars note that the penalty of death dealt here indicates that the Sanhedrin recognized the miracles Yeshua did as real rather than simply illusion, although they saw its source to be evil. The section then goes on to discuss the names of Jesus' disciples.


  Once again, rather than finding support for the conspiracy theories put forward by popular fiction writers, we have instead unearthed further proof of the reliability and authenticity of the Bible. 


  It is just as the Lord Jesus said,


  "Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will never pass away." Matthew 24:35


  ========


  See also:


  Experts' Evidence for Jesus' Crucifixion


  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jF0egAzJ7bw


  Jesus of Nazareth’s Trial in Sanhedrin 43a (a PDF)


  http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Tyndale/staff/Instone-Brewer/prepub/Sanhedrin%2043a%20censored.pdf 


  Tyndale's Press Release on the acquisition


  http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/index.php?page=frame&add=http://www.tyndale.cam.ac.uk/Tyndale/staff/Instone-Brewer/prepub/bSan43a-Intro.htm





What's In A Name? Yeshua versus... Esau?

  God didn't name Jesus "Isa" in the Bible. 

  He named Him Yeshua, short for Yehoshua, which means "The Lord Saves."


  Read it here in Matthew 1 (text in parentheses mine):


  20 But after he had considered these things, an angel of the Lord suddenly appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, don’t be afraid to take Mary as your wife, because what has been conceived in her is by the Holy Spirit. 


  21 She will give birth to a son, and you are to name Him Jesus (Yehoshua in the Orthodox Jewish Bible), because He will save His people from their sins.”


  Yehoshua is transliterated as "Iesous" in the Greek, and IESVS in Latin, from which we get the English word, "Jesus." 


  In John 19:19-20, we read:


19 Pilate also had a sign lettered and put on the cross. The inscription was:  

     JESUS THE NAZARENE 
     THE KING OF THE JEWS. 


20 Many of the Jews read this sign, because the place where Jesus was crucified was near the city, and it was written in Hebrew, Latin, and Greek.


  The sign on the cross would have had Jesus' name spelled out as IESVS-IESOUS-YEHSHUS (Latin, Greek, Hebrew). 


  Jesus was known as Yeshua in the Hebrew, and Iesous in the Greek.

  Eesa, on the other hand, is said to be the Arabic for "Esau," which means "hairy" in Hebrew. "Eesa" means nothing in Arabic. There is no meaning or definition whatsoever for the name "Eesa" in Arabic. 


  I think it is certainly curious that Muhammad would choose to replace Jesus' name, Yehoshua, "The Lord Saves," with another name which means absolutely nothing, especially in our context. 


  This after YHWH had taken such pains to make sure that the world got the message that this Child was going to be unlike any other. For example:

  
  - the virgin birth
  - signs in the heavens preceded and attended His coming
  - angels appeared to shepherds
  - prophets spoke at His dedication at the Temple
  - He did miracles such as had never been seen on earth then and since 
  - He rose from the dead on His own power after three days, just as He had prophesied 

  As it turns out, however, Muhammad got the name Eesa from manuscripts which are not a part of the Christian Bible called the Gnostic Gospels, which is a collection of false teachings written hundreds of years after Jesus' return to heaven.  


  This is a huge problem for Islam because the Gnostic Gospels' Isa is a person who is far removed from the real Jesus of the Bible. 

  For example: 

  - the real Jesus of the Bible never killed anyone, much less children. But the Gnostic Isa did. 

  - the real Jesus of the Bible never did any miracles just for show. But the Gnostic Isa did. 

  - the real Jesus of the Bible never cursed people or made them blind. But the Gnostic Isa did. 

  The real Jesus of the Bible gives life. He doesn't take it.

  The real Jesus of the Bible is humble and meek. He's not proud or boastful.

  The real Jesus of the Bible heals others. He doesn't harm them.  

  More on the false Jesus, the "Isa" of Muhammad and the Gnostic Gospels, in a future article!



He Will Save His People from Their Sins



The Biblical Concept of the Complex Unity of God

  There are some who claim that the doctrine of the Trinity is an innovation introduced by the Council of Nicea in the 4th century, and that this is a teaching that is not found in the Old Testament or in pre-Christian Judaism.

  Let's go to a couple of Orthodox Jews and a couple of Orthodox Jewish rabbis to dispute the claims that the Triune Godhead is not a truly biblical Jewish teaching.


  Our first Orthodox Jewish rabbi is Moses, who teaches us about the Complex Unity of God in Genesis 19. The context is of YHWH coming to earth and speaking - and even dining with - Abram just before He destroys the evil cities of Sodom and Gomorra:


  כד  וַיהוָה, הִמְטִיר עַל-סְדֹם וְעַל-עֲמֹרָה--גָּפְרִית וָאֵשׁ:  מֵאֵת 
  יְהוָה, מִן-הַשָּׁמָיִם. (Hebrew)

24 Then the LORD caused to rain upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the LORD out of heaven;

  Transliterated, it would read thus:


24 Then YHWH caused to rain upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from YHWH out of heaven;


  That is YHWH on earth calling down judgement from YHWH in heaven, and it's taken from the Jewish Publication Society's online Mechon-Mamre Bible. Definitely not a "Christian" Bible.

  Our second teacher is an Orthodox Jew, King Solomon:


  ד  מִי עָלָה-שָׁמַיִם    וַיֵּרַד,

  מִי אָסַף-רוּחַ בְּחָפְנָיו    מִי צָרַר-מַיִם בַּשִּׂמְלָה--
  מִי,    הֵקִים כָּל-אַפְסֵי-אָרֶץ:
  מַה-שְּׁמוֹ וּמַה-שֶּׁם-בְּנוֹ,    כִּי תֵדָע. (Hebrew)

4 Who hath ascended up into heaven, and descended? Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the waters in his garment? Who hath established all the ends of the earth? What is his name, and what is his son's name, if thou knowest?


  Again, the text above is from the Jewish Publication Society's Mechon-Mamre Bible. You can see both passages for yourself here:


    http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0119.htm


  And here:


    http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt2830.htm


  Our third tutor is the Orthodox Jew King David, who also shows us that God is a complex unity in Psalm 2:  


11 Serve the Lord with reverential awe and rejoice with trembling.


12 Pay homage to the Son or He will be angry and you will perish in your rebellion, for His anger may ignite at any moment. All those who take refuge in Him are happy.


  Next we turn to a Jewish prophet, the prophet Isaiah, who said in Isaiah 9:6...

  (The above image is from the Dead Sea Scrolls, dated at around 250-BC)

  "For a child will be born for us, a son will be given to us, and the government will be on His shoulders. He will be named Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace." Isaiah 9:6 HCSB

  Our final Source is the most famous of them all by far. He is the best known Jew in the whole world and has been talked about for the last 2,000 years and will be talked about all through eternity.


  I'm referring to the world-renowned Orthodox Jewish rabbi who Christians call Yeshua ha Mashiach, or to us English speakers, Jesus the Messiah. Yeshua the Orthodox Jewish Rabbi delineates the triune nature of the Biblical Godhead for us when He says 
in Matthew 28:

19 "Go, therefore, and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit..."


  Yeshua the Jewish Rabbi teaches us that God has One name, but that His name is shared by the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. 
Further study of the Bible shows that the 3 Persons in the one God are co-equal, co-eternal and co-existent.

  More information is available here:

  Answering Your Toughest Questions, Episode 10, The Trinity. God is One, Not Three: Dr. Michael Brown

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEKuLP0xFNQ

  Answering Your Toughest Questions, Episode 11, The Deity of the Messiah: Dr. Michael Brown

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wqDbB7pQ9ns&list=PLOSesbHxQr2Ta7WjFBut_bjLRWwMSYepK

  The Jewish Trinity: Dr Michael Heiser

  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hz8J4DTIkEg

  The Biblical Basis for the Doctrine of the Trinity

  http://irr.org/biblical-basis-of-doctrine-of-trinity

  The Lord Our God is One!

  http://apologika.blogspot.com/2014/01/the-lord-our-god-is-one.html



John 5:30 in Context

  Many times a Muslim who has never read the Bible will make a false claim about what Jesus says, and when he's rebutted, he will complain that Christians are confused.

  One of their favorite such claims is that Jesus said He was not God in John 5:30 which, according to Muslims says,

  “I can do nothing on My own."


  But that is not all of what Jesus said.


  In fact, the whole verse reads,


  “I can do nothing on My own. I judge only as I hear, and My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me." John 5:30


  That is why Muslims are confused about the Bible, because they and their imams insert their own interpretations into what Jesus actually said, instead of allowing the Bible to speak for itself.


  To find out what Jesus was in fact talking about, we need to read John 5:30 in its context. Let us take the passage verse by verse (Bible verses are in bold print):


24 “I assure you: Anyone who hears My word and believes Him who sent Me has eternal life and will not come under judgment but has passed from death to life."


  It is Jesus' word that brings eternal life. You can be spiritually dead one moment but alive the next IF you believe in JESUS' words in the Bible. All Christians who have been born again into new life have done that.


25 "I assure you: An hour is coming, and is now here, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live."


  Jesus raises the spiritually dead as well as the physically dead. Jesus just said it is His VOICE which brings the dead out of the grave.


26 "For just as the Father has life in Himself, so also He has granted to the Son to have life in Himself."


  In the same way that the Father has life, Jesus has that life. Key phrase: "in the same way."


  He uses the word "granted" because Jesus has come to earth and inhabited an earthly human body. Bible scholars call this Jesus' "humiliation" because the Almighty God demeaned and humbled Himself to rescue you, Abdul, from the sins you can never pay for on your own.


  One of the central differences between a non-believer and a Christian is we Christians KNOW we are sinners and will never, ever be able to "pay God back" for all of our sins. He is just too holy and our sins are just too filthy. He knows that we can't do it. That's why He sent Jesus.


27 "And He has granted Him the right to pass judgment, because He is the Son of Man."


  Jesus is going to judge sinners. Who else has the right to do that but the pure Son of God Who has been in a human body and experienced what it's like to be tempted but never once succumbed?


28 "Do not be amazed at this, because a time is coming when all who are in the graves will hear His voice


29 and come out—those who have done good things, to the resurrection of life, but those who have done wicked things, to the resurrection of judgment."


  Note that all through the passage Jesus has been speaking of judgement of good and evil. That is the context of the words Muslims love to quote:


30 “I can do nothing on My own. I judge only as I hear, and My judgment is righteous, because I do not seek My own will, but the will of Him who sent Me."


  He cannot and will not judge on His own. The Son never does anything out of perfect synch with the Father. It is not His will that will be followed, but the Father's will.


  THAT is the Perfect Son.


  That is why He is the Perfect Adam.


  Because where the first Adam failed, the Second Adam, Jesus, is flawless, sinless and perfect.


  Because where the first Adam was only "A son of God,"


  Jesus is the Son of God.





  See also:

  The Messiah, The Son of God?

  http://apologika.blogspot.com/2014/05/the-messiah-son-of-god.html

  Was Jesus Just a Messiah?

  http://apologika.blogspot.com/2014/04/yeshua-messiah-son-of-god-son-of-man.html



The Many Names of Jesus in the Bible

  Another obvious indicator that Jesus Himself is the central focus of the Bible is the fact that He is given hundreds of different names in the Word of God. No author would give so much attention to a mere character if it would distract the audience from the main point of the book 

  But the fact that YHWH has given Him such great honor in the Bible makes it clear that He is not just a messenger, but that Jesus Christ Himself is The Message. Here are some of those names:

ADAM: (1 Corinthians 15:45) And so it is written, The first man Adam was made a living soul; the last Adam was made a quickening spirit.

ADVOCATE: (1 John 2:1) My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:

ALMIGHTY: (Revelation 1:8) I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

ALPHA AND OMEGA: (Revelation 1:8) I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

AMEN: (Revelation 3:14) And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;

APOSTLE OF OUR PROFESSION: (Hebrews 3:1) Wherefore, holy brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, consider the Apostle and High Priest of our profession, Christ Jesus;

ARM OF THE LORD: (Isaiah 51:9) Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; awake, as in the ancient days, in the generations of old. Art thou not it that hath cut Rahab, and wounded the dragon?

(Isaiah 53:1) Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the LORD revealed?

AUTHOR AND FINISHER OF OUR FAITH: (Hebrews 12:2) Looking unto Jesus the author and finisher of our faith; who for the joy that was set before him endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of God.

AUTHOR OF ETERNAL SALVATION: (Hebrews 5:9) And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation unto all them that obey him;

BEGINNING OF CREATION OF GOD: (Revelation 3:14) And unto the angel of the church of the Laodiceans write; These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God;

BELOVED SON: (Matthew 12:18) Behold my servant, whom I have chosen; my beloved, in whom my soul is well pleased: I will put my spirit upon him, and he shall show judgment to the Gentiles.

BLESSED AND ONLY POTENTATE: (1 Timothy 6:15) Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;

BRANCH: (Isaiah 4:2) In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel.

BREAD OF LIFE: (John 6:32) Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from heaven; but my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.

CAPTAIN OF SALVATION: (Hebrews 2:10) For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons unto glory, to make the captain of their salvation perfect through sufferings.

CHIEF SHEPHERD: (1 Peter 5:4) And when the chief Shepherd shall appear, ye shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not away.

CHRIST OF GOD: (Luke 9:20) He said unto them, But whom say ye that I am? Peter answering said, The Christ of God.

CONSOLATION OF ISRAEL: (Luke 2:25) And, behold, there was a man in Jerusalem, whose name was Simeon; and the same man was just and devout, waiting for the consolation of Israel: and the Holy Ghost was upon him.

CORNERSTONE: (Psalm 118:22) The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner.

COUNSELLOR: (Isaiah 9:6) For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.

CREATOR: (John 1:3) All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.

DAYSPRING: (Luke 1:78) Through the tender mercy of our God; whereby the dayspring from on high hath visited us,

DELIVERER: (Romans 11:26) And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, There shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:

DESIRE OF THE NATIONS: (Haggai 2:7) And I will shake all nations, and the desire of all nations shall come: and I will fill this house with glory, saith the LORD of hosts.

DOOR: (John 10:7) Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep.

ELECT OF GOD: (Isaiah 42:1) Behold my servant, whom I uphold; mine elect, in whom my soul delighteth; I have put my spirit upon him: he shall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.

EVERLASTING FATHER: (Isaiah 9:6) For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.

FAITHFUL WITNESS: (Revelation 1:5) And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

FIRST AND LAST: (Revelation 1:17) And when I saw him, I fell at his feet as dead. And he laid his right hand upon me, saying unto me, Fear not; I am the first and the last:

FIRST BEGOTTEN: (Revelation 1:5) And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

FORERUNNER: (Hebrews 6:20) Whither the forerunner is for us entered, even Jesus, made an high priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec.

GLORY OF THE LORD: (Isaiah 40:5) And the glory of the LORD shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together: for the mouth of the LORD hath spoken it.

GOD: (Isaiah 40:3) The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God.

GOD BLESSED: (Romans 9:5) Whose are the fathers, and of whom as concerning the flesh Christ came, who is over all, God blessed for ever. Amen.

GOOD SHEPHERD: (John 10:11) I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the sheep.

GOVERNOR: (Matthew 2:6) And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the princes of Juda: for out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall rule my people Israel.

GREAT HIGH PRIEST: (Hebrews 4:14) Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.

HEAD OF THE CHURCH: (Ephesians 1:22) And hath put all things under his feet, and gave him to be the head over all things to the church,

HEIR OF ALL THINGS: (Hebrews 1:2) Hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son, whom he hath appointed heir of all things, by whom also he made the worlds;

HOLY CHILD: (Acts 4:27) For of a truth against thy holy child Jesus, whom thou hast anointed, both Herod, and Pontius Pilate, with the Gentiles, and the people of Israel, were gathered together,

HOLY ONE: (Acts 3:14) But ye denied the Holy One and the Just, and desired a murderer to be granted unto you;

HOLY ONE OF GOD: (Mark 1:24) Saying, Let us alone; what have we to do with thee, thou Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art, the Holy One of God.

HOLY ONE OF ISRAEL: (Isaiah 41:14) Fear not, thou worm Jacob, and ye men of Israel; I will help thee, saith the LORD, and thy redeemer, the Holy One of Israel.

HORN OF SALVATION: (Luke 1:69) And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David;

I AM: (John 8:58) Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before Abraham was, I am.

IMAGE OF GOD: (2 Corinthians 4:4) In whom the god of this world hath blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.

IMMANUEL: (Isaiah 7:14) Therefore the Lord himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel.

JEHOVAH: (Isaiah 26:4) Trust ye in the LORD for ever: for in the LORD JEHOVAH is everlasting strength:

JESUS: (Matthew 1:21) And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name JESUS: for he shall save his people from their sins.

JESUS OF NAZARETH: (Matthew 21:11) And the multitude said, This is Jesus the prophet of Nazareth of Galilee.

JUDGE OF ISRAEL: (Micah 5:1) Now gather thyself in troops, O daughter of troops: he hath laid siege against us: they shall smite the judge of Israel with a rod upon the cheek.

THE JUST ONE: (Acts 7:52) Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which showed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom ye have been now the betrayers and murderers:

KING: (Zechariah 9:9) Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion; shout, O daughter of Jerusalem: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; lowly, and riding upon an ass, and upon a colt the foal of an ass.

KING OF THE AGES: (1 Timothy 1:17) Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen.

KING OF THE JEWS: (Matthew 2:2) Saying, Where is he that is born King of the Jews? for we have seen his star in the east, and are come to worship him.

KING OF KINGS: (1 Timothy 6:15) Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;

KING OF SAINTS: (Revelation 15:3) And they sing the song of Moses the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb, saying, Great and marvellous are thy works, Lord God Almighty; just and true are thy ways, thou King of saints.

LAWGIVER: (Isaiah 33:22) For the LORD is our judge, the LORD is our lawgiver, the LORD is our king; he will save us.

LAMB: (Revelation 13:8) And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him, whose names are not written in the book of life of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world.

LAMB OF GOD: (John 1:29) The next day John seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold the Lamb of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.

LEADER AND COMMANDER: (Isaiah 55:4) Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people.

THE LIFE: (John 14:6) Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth, and the life: no man cometh unto the Father, but by me.

LIGHT OF THE WORLD: (John 8:12) Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I am the light of the world: he that followeth me shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life.

LION OF THE TRIBE OF JUDAH: (Revelation 5:5) And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: behold, the Lion of the tribe of Juda, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose the seven seals thereof.

LORD OF ALL: (Acts 10:36) The word which God sent unto the children of Israel, preaching peace by Jesus Christ: (he is Lord of all:)

LORD OF GLORY: (1 Corinthians 2:8) Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.

LORD OF LORDS: (1 Timothy 6:15) Which in his times he shall show, who is the blessed and only Potentate, the King of kings, and Lord of lords;

LORD OF OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS: (Jeremiah 23:6) In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.

MAN OF SORROWS: (Isaiah 53:3) He is despised and rejected of men; a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief: and we hid as it were our faces from him; he was despised, and we esteemed him not.

MEDIATOR: (1 Timothy 2:5) For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

MESSENGER OF THE COVENANT: (Malachi 3:1) Behold, I will send my messenger, and he shall prepare the way before me: and the Lord, whom ye seek, shall suddenly come to his temple, even the messenger of the covenant, whom ye delight in: behold, he shall come, saith the LORD of hosts.

MESSIAH: (Daniel 9:25) Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem unto the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks, and threescore and two weeks: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times.

(John 1:41) He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messiah, which is, being interpreted, the Christ.

MIGHTY GOD: (Isaiah 9:6) For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.

MIGHTY ONE: (Isaiah 60:16) Thou shalt also suck the milk of the Gentiles, and shalt suck the breast of kings: and thou shalt know that I the LORD am thy Saviour and thy Redeemer, the mighty One of Jacob.

MORNING STAR: (Revelation 22:16) I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

NAZARENE: (Matthew 2:23) And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.

ONLY BEGOTTEN SON: (John 1:18) No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.

OUR PASSOVER: (1 Corinthians 5:7) Purge out therefore the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened. For even Christ our passover is sacrificed for us:

PRINCE OF LIFE: (Acts 3:15) And killed the Prince of life, whom God hath raised from the dead; whereof we are witnesses.

PRINCE OF KINGS: (Revelation 1:5) And from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, and the first begotten of the dead, and the prince of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood,

PRINCE OF PEACE: (Isaiah 9:6) For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.

PROPHET: (Luke 24:19) And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:

(Acts 3:22) For Moses truly said unto the fathers, A prophet shall the Lord your God raise up unto you of your brethren, like unto me; him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever he shall say unto you.

REDEEMER: (Job 19:25) For I know that my redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at the latter day upon the earth:

RESURRECTION AND LIFE: (John 11:25) Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live:

ROCK: (1 Corinthians 10:4) And did all drink the same spiritual drink: for they drank of that spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.

ROOT OF DAVID: (Revelation 22:16) I Jesus have sent mine angel to testify unto you these things in the churches. I am the root and the offspring of David, and the bright and morning star.

ROSE OF SHARON: (Song of Songs 2:1) I am the rose of Sharon, and the lily of the valleys.

SAVIOR: (Luke 2:11) For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord.

SEED OF WOMAN: (Genesis 3:15) And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.

SHEPHERD AND BISHOP OF SOULS: (1 Peter 2:25) For ye were as sheep going astray; but are now returned unto the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls.

SHILOH: (Genesis 49:10) The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.

SON OF THE BLESSED: (Mark 14:61) But he held his peace, and answered nothing. Again the high priest asked him, and said unto him, Art thou the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?

SON OF DAVID: (Matthew 1:1) The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, the son of David, the son of Abraham.

SON OF GOD: (Matthew 2:15) And was there until the death of Herod: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying, Out of Egypt have I called my son.

SON OF THE HIGHEST: (Luke 1:32) He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the Highest: and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:

SUN OF RIGHTEOUSNESS: (Malachi 4:2) But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.

TRUE LIGHT: (John 1:9) That was the true Light, which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.

TRUE VINE: (John 15:1) I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman.

TRUTH: (John 1:14) And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

WITNESS: (Isaiah 55:4) Behold, I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people.

WORD: (John 1:1) In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

WORD OF GOD: (Revelation 19:13) And he was clothed with a vesture dipped in blood: and his name is called The Word of God.

With thanks to the original compiler of this list, whoever that might have been  

Extra-Biblical Historical Evidence for the Life, Death, And Resurrection Of Jesus

  Apart from the New Testament manuscripts, which are themselves historical documents, there are secular sources which prove the life and death of Christ, and even a few which note the Christian claim that Jesus had risen again from the dead. Below are some of those sources  

  Flavius Josephus (37-97 AD), court historian for Emperor Vespasian:


  "At this time there was a wise man who was called Jesus. And his conduct was good and he was known to be virtuous. And many people from among the Jews and other nations became his disciples. Pilate condemned him to be crucified and to die. And those who had become his disciples did not abandon his discipleship. They reported that he had appeared to them three days after his crucifixion and that he was alive; accordingly, he was perhaps the messiah concerning whom the prophets have recounted wonders." (Arabic translation)


  Cornelius Tacitus (55-120 AD), "the greatest historian" of ancient Rome:


  "Consequently, to get rid of the report, Nero fastened the guilt and inflicted the most exquisite tortures on a class hated for their abominations, called Christians by the populace. Christus, from whom the name had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus, and a most mischievous superstition, thus checked for the moment, again broke out not only in Judaea, the first source of the evil, but even in Rome, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their centre and become popular. Accordingly, an arrest was first made of all who pleaded guilty; then, upon their information, an immense multitude was convicted, not so much of the crime of firing the city, as of hatred against mankind. Mockery of every sort was added to their deaths. Covered with the skins of beasts, they were torn by dogs and perished, or were nailed to crosses, or were doomed to the flames and burnt, to serve as a nightly illumination, when daylight had expired. Nero offered his gardens for the spectacle, and was exhibiting a show in the circus, while he mingled with the people in the dress of a charioteer or stood aloft on a car. Hence, even for criminals who deserved extreme and exemplary punishment, there arose a feeling of compassion; for it was not, as it seemed, for the public good, but to glut one man's cruelty, that they were being destroyed."


  Gaius Suetonius Tranquillas, chief secretary of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD):


  "Because the Jews of Rome caused continous disturbances at the instigation of Chrestus, [Claudius] expelled them from the city."


  "After the great fire at Rome [during Nero's reign] ... Punishments were also inflicted on the Christians, a sect professing a new and mischievous religious belief."


  Pliny the Younger, Roman governor of Bithynia in Asia Minor around 112 AD:

  "[The Christians] were in the habit of meeting on a certain fixed day before it was light, when they sang in alternate verses a hymn to Christ, as to a god, and bound themselves by a solemn oath, not to any wicked deeds, but never to commit any fraud, theft or adultery, never to falsify their word, nor deny a trust when they should be called upon to deliver it up; after which it was their custom to separate, and then reassemble to partake of food--but food of an ordinary and innocent kind." Pliny added that Christianity attracted persons of all societal ranks, all ages, both sexes, and from both the city and the country. Late in his letter to Emperor Trajan, Pliny refers to the teachings of Jesus and his followers as excessive and contagious superstition.


Emperor Trajan, in reply to Pliny:


  "The method you have pursued, my dear Pliny, in sifting the cases of those denounced to you as Christians is extremely proper. It is not possible to lay down any general rule which can be applied as the fixed standard in all cases of this nature. No search should be made for these people; when they are denounced and found guilty they must be punished; with the restriction, however, that when the party denies himself to be a Christian, and shall give proof that he is not (that is, by adoring our gods) he shall be pardoned on the ground of repentance, even though he may have formerly incurred suspicion. Informations without the accuser's name subscribed must not be admitted in evidence against anyone, as it is introducing a very dangerous precedent, and by no means agreeable to the spirit of the age."


  Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD), in a letter to Minucius Fundanus, the Asian proconsul:


  "I do not wish, therefore, that the matter should be passed by without examination, so that these men may neither be harassed, nor opportunity of malicious proceedings be offered to informers. If, therefore, the provincials can clearly evince their charges against the Christians, so as to answer before the tribunal, let them pursue this course only, but not by mere petitions, and mere outcries against the Christians. For it is far more proper, if anyone would bring an accusation, that you should examine it." Hadrian further explained that if Christians were found guilty they should be judged "according to the heinousness of the crime." If the accusers were only slandering the believers, then those who inaccurately made the charges were to be punished.


  Julius Africanus, writing around 221 AD, found a reference in the writings of Thallus, who wrote a history of the Eastern Mediterranean around 52 AD, which dealt with the darkness that covered the land during Jesus's crucifixion:


  "Thallus, in the third book of his histories, explains away the darkness as an eclipse of the sun--unreasonably, as it seems to me." [A solar eclipse could not take place during a full moon, as was the case during Passover season.]


  The Jewish Talmud, compiled between 70 and 200 AD:


  "On the eve of the Passover Yeshu was hanged. For forty days before the execution took place, a herald went forth and cried, 'He is going forth to be stoned because he has practised sorcery and enticed Israel to apostacy. Anyone who can say anything in his favour, let him come forward and plead on his behalf.' But since nothing was brought forward in his favour he was hanged on the eve of the Passover."


  [Another early reference in the Talmud speaks of five of Jesus's disciples and recounts their standing before judges who make individual decisions about each one, deciding that they should be executed. However, no actual deaths are recorded.]


Lucian, a second century Greek satirist:


  "The Christians, you know, worship a man to this day--the distinguished personage who introduced their novel rites, and was crucified on that account. ... You see, these misguided creatures start with the general conviction that they are immortal for all time, which explains the contempt of death and voluntary self-devotion which are so common among them; and then it was impressed on them by their original lawgiver that they are all brothers, from the moment that they are converted, and deny the gods of Greece, and worship the crucified sage, and live after his laws. All this they take quite on faith, with the result that they despise all worldly goods alike, regarding them merely as common property." Lucian also reported that the Christians had "sacred writings" which were frequently read. When something affected them, "they spare no trouble, no expense."


  Mara Bar-Serapion, of Syria, writing between 70 and 200 AD from prison to motivate his son to emulate wise teachers of the past:


  "What advantage did the Athenians gain from putting Socrates to death? Famine and plague came upon them as a judgment for their crime. What advantage did the men of Samos gain from burying Pythagoras? In a moment their land was covered with sand. What advantage did the Jews gain from executing their wise king? It was just after that that their kingdom was abolished. God justly avenged these three wise men: the Athenians died of hunger; the Samians were overwhelmed by the sea; the Jews, ruined and driven from their land, live in complete dispersion. But Socrates did not die for good; he lived on in the teaching of Plato. Pythagoras did not die for good; he lived on in the statue of Hera. Nor did the wise king die for good; he lived on in the teaching which he had given."


With thanks to

  westarkchurchofchrist.org/library/extrabiblical.htm

Four Apostles Name Jesus as God

Jesus is God

  Here are a few of the verses that are unambiguous in their declaration of the Deity of Jesus Christ. 

  The Apostle John says (italics mine):

  1 In the beginning was the Word, 
     and the Word was with God,
     and the Word was God

  2 He was with God in the beginning.

  3 all things were created through Him, and apart from Him not one thing was created that has been created." John 1

  "... Jesus Christ. He is the true God and eternal life." 1 John 5:20 

  The Apostle Thomas, confronted with the resurrected Christ, finally understands:

27 Then He said to Thomas, “Put your finger here and observe My hands. Reach out your hand and put it into My side. Don’t be an unbeliever, but a believer.”

28 Thomas responded to Him, “My Lord and my God!” John 20

  The Apostle Peter says:

  "Simeon Peter, a slave and an apostle of Jesus Christ: To those who have obtained a faith of equal privilege with ours through the righteousness of our God and Savior Jesus Christ." 2 Peter 1:1

  The Apostle Paul says:

  "... Christ Himself... He is God, the One Who rules over everything and is worthy of eternal praise! Amen." Romans 9:5 

  "... while we wait for the blessed hope and appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ." Titus 2:13

  "... For in Christ lives all the fullness of God in a human body. So you also are complete through your union with Christ, Who is the head over every ruler and authority." Colossians 2:8-10 

  The Bible is explicit in more than a few places, making the teaching crystal clear:
Aqua

  See also:

  Jesus, God of the Greetings

  http://www.apologika.blogspot.com/2014/03/jesus-god-in-salutations.html

  Jesus as the Only Lord and Master of Jude

  http://www.apologika.blogspot.com/2013/12/jesus-as-only-lord-and-master-of-jude.html

  


Did Jesus Die on the Cross? I

  Christians will wonder why we are even asking this question, but the fact is that some of Islam's key teachings fundamentally contradict basic Christian truths

  Truths that have been affirmed by Jewish, Roman and even secular historians 

  Truths that are contained in what scholars call the best attested Book in the history of the world: 

  the New Testament 

  As we've already pointed out, one of the truths that Islam denies is Jesus Christ's death on the cross    

  To do so, however, Islam must ignore some of the clearest and most definitive statements of fact in Scripture, forcing us to ask:

  What part of "JESUS DIED" does Islam not understand? 

  While our translations use different words and phrases to convey the same thought: Jesus "expired," "He breathed His last," or "He gave up the ghost," all of these mean the same thing. Jesus died, period

  Here are some of the most explicit examples (bold print mine) from all four Gospels

  Matthew said Jesus died:

  "Then Jesus cried out with a loud voice again and died." Matthew 27:50 (ISV)

  Mark said Jesus died:

  "Then Jesus cried out in a loud voice and died." Mark 15:37 (GWT)

  Luke said Jesus died:

  "Jesus cried out in a loud voice, 'Father, into your hands I entrust my spirit.' After he said this, he died." Luke 23:46 (GWT)

  John said Jesus died:

  "After Jesus had taken the vinegar, he said, "It is finished!" Then he bowed his head and died." John 19:30 (GWT)

  As further proof that Jesus was dead, they brought His dead corpse to a tomb and prepared it for burial

  Apart from all of the above proof, Jesus Himself said He died:

  "... I was dead, but look—I am alive forever and ever, and I hold the keys of death and Hades." Revelation 1:18

  Throughout His time with them, Jesus had repeatedly told His disciples that He was going to suffer at the hands of the leaders of the Jews, be crucified, and die

  God even sent Moses and Elijah back to earth to confirm that Jesus was going to suffer and die on the cross

  But Jesus promised His apostles and disciples that He would rise again from the dead after three days. And he did exactly as He said He would 

  Sadly, Muslims have chosen to believe that the Jesus Who never lied -- and Who could never lie -- lied, while taking the word of Muhammad,  who taught them that it is okay to lie


  The God of the Bible says, 

  "But the cowards, unbelievers, vile, murderers, sexually immoral, sorcerers, idolaters, and all liars—their share will be in the lake that burns with fire and sulfur, which is the second death.” Revelation 21:8

  As for me, I'm going with the Man Who never lied. 

Was No One Ever Called John Before John the Baptist?

  The Gospel of Luke describes the extraordinary birth of John the Baptist for us:  

  59 When they came to circumcise the child on the eighth day, they were going to name him Zechariah, after his father.

  60 But his mother responded, “No! He will be called John.”

  61 Then they said to her, “None of your relatives has that name.” 

  62 So they motioned to his father to find out what he wanted him to be called. 

  63 He asked for a writing tablet and wrote: HIS NAME IS JOHN. And they were all amazed.” Luke 1:59-62 (HCSB)

  Now, to better appreciate the Quranic error we're about to see, let's take a second look at that passage as it is translated in the Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB). Just to make sure everyone understands... "John" is the English translation of the Hebrew "Yochanan" and the Greek "Ioannes:"  

  59 And it came about on the yom hashemini (the eighth day) they came for the bris milah of the yeled, and they were calling him by the name of his abba, Zecharyah.
  60 And in reply, his Em said: Lo, but he will be called Yochanan.
  61 And they said to her, There is no one from your krovim who is called by this shem.
  62 And they began motioning to the yeled’s abba to find out what shem he wanted to give him.
  63 And having asked for a luach (tablet), Zecharyah wrote, saying, Yochanan shmo. And everyone was amazed...." Luke 1:59-63 (OJB)

  But 600 years later, what appears to have happened is something akin to what apostate historian and textual critic Bart Ehrman likes to call "the telephone game." While Muhammad picked up on the part of the story that the child's name of John (or Yochanan in Hebrew) had been specially chosen, Muhammad exaggerated it, and took it somewhere it was never meant to go. Take a look at what he said in his Quran:  

  [He was told], "O Zechariah, indeed We give you good tidings of a boy whose name will be John. We have not assigned to any before [this] name." Quran 19:7, Sahih International 

  Some other translations:

  (It was said unto him): O Zachariah! Lo! We bring thee tidings of a son whose name is John; we have given the same name to none before (him)." Pickthall

  (Allah said) "O Zakariya (Zachariah)! Verily, We give you the glad tidings of a son, His name will be Yahya (John). We have given that name to none before (him)." Hilali-Khan

  [And the angel answered him], o Zacharias, verily we bring thee tidings of a son, whose name [shall be] John; we have not caused any to bear the same name before him." Sale

  "O Zachariah! verily we announce to thee a son, - his name John: That name We have given to none before him." Rodwell

  We have given this name to no one else before him? 

  Perhaps, in his desire to excite his listening audience, Muhammad decided to spice up his story. Or perhaps he just remembered it wrong. But it was something that many of his followers would never be able to confirm since, not only were most of them illiterate, but they were also living in 7th century Arabia. 

  Not so, though, for you and me living in 2014, with all the benefits of Google and the Internet (is it any wonder now that Muslim rulers all over the world seek to censor the websites they allow their people to visit?) Today we can very easily verify what has been said before to determine if it is true. And very quickly we find out that Muhammad was most definitely wrong. 

  There are other sources, but the Bible is the handiest, so let us go there. The Bible does show us that the name has, in fact, been given to others before. Here are a few examples in a straight English version and then in mixed English-Hebrew.

  The name Johanan is recorded in 1 Chronicles, dated at around 1003 BC, or about a thousand years before the birth of John the Baptist:

  "Josiah’s sons: Johanan was the firstborn, Jehoiakim second, Zedekiah third, and Shallum fourth." 1 Chronicles 3:15 (HCSB)

  "And the Bnei Yoshiyahu were, the bechor Yochanan, the second Y’hoyakim, the third Tzidkiyahu, the fourth Shallum." 1 Chronicles 3:15 (OJB)

  Another Yochanan is recorded by the prophet Jeremiah, writing around 580BC,  

  "... and he summoned Johanan son of Kareah, all the commanders of the armies who were with him, and all the people from the least to the greatest." Jeremiah 42:8 (HCSB)

  "Then he called Yochanan Ben Kareach, and all the army officers which were with him, and kol HaAm from the katon even to the gadol..." Jeremiah 42:8 (OJB)

  And again in the Book of Nehemiah, which was written around 445BC, or almost half a millennia before the birth of John the Baptist: 

  "In the days of Eliashib, Joiada, Johanan, and Jaddua, the leaders of the families of the Levites and priests were recorded while Darius the Persian ruled." Nehemiah 12:22 (HCSB)

  "The Levi’im in the days of Elyashiv, Yoyada, and Yochanan, and Yaddua, were recorded rashei haAvot; also the kohanim, to the reign of Daryavesh the Persian." Nehemiah 12:22 (OJB)

  So there were Johanans or Yochanans since at least 1,000 years before John the Baptist, and this proves Muhammad was wrong.

  Or, if you prefer, Allah was wrong.

  Whoever you want to blame, this is one of the more obvious of the errors in the Quran.

  But there may be those who will claim I need to read 19:7 in the Arabic, so let me turn to three of Islam's most-respected Tafsirs to check if I am interpreting this ayah correctly:

  Ibn Kathir writes...

﴾ Allah said,
﴿لَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ سَمِيّاً﴾

(We have given that name to none before (him).) Qatadah, Ibn Jurayj and Ibn Zayd said, "This means that no one had this name before him.'' Ibn Jarir preferred this interpretation, may Allah have mercy upon him.

  * تفسير Tafsir al-Jalalayn
  { يٰزَكَرِيَّآ إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلاَمٍ ٱسْمُهُ يَحْيَىٰ لَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ سَمِيّاً }

  God, exalted be He, in responding to his request for a son that will be the incarnation of His mercy, says: ‘O Zachariah! Indeed We give you good tidings of a boy, who will inherit in the way that you have requested — whose name is John. Never before have We made anyone his namesake’, that is, [never has there been] anyone with the name ‘John’.

  * تفسير Tanwîr al-Miqbâs min Tafsîr Ibn ‘Abbâs
  { يٰزَكَرِيَّآ إِنَّا نُبَشِّرُكَ بِغُلاَمٍ ٱسْمُهُ يَحْيَىٰ لَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ مِن قَبْلُ سَمِيّاً }

  And so Gabriel called him, saying: (O Zachariah! Lo! We bring you tidings of a son whose name is John) Yahya in Arabic, because he has breathed life (ahya) into his mother's womb; (We have given the same name to none before (him)) We have not given before a son to Zachariah whose name is John; it is also said that this means: there was no one before him whose name was John.

  So there we are. Both tafsirs agree with the simple understanding.
  
  And Muhammad, the Quran and Allah are still wrong. 

  How do you explain this, Muslims?




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